Wednesday, December 02, 2009

Chemistry of Materials Project - Biochemistry

Here is the latest version of the Chemistry of Materials Project, with emphasis on biological chemistry. Also, the following link provides a list of some helpful web sites for information about the project's topics. I also am providing the link to the previous Chemistry of Materials project description.
Chemistry of Materials – Coordinated Science II –Project

Assignment and Objective: Understanding atomic and molecular structure expands our knowledge of the nature of the material world and advances the technological sophistication of society. Each student will learn about the history and chemical make-up of a commonly used material, and present that information to the class. Students will also be responsible for learning about the topics that are presented by others.  A very helpful website, titled What's That Stuff,? for this project can be found here:  http://pubs.acs.org/cen/whatstuff/

Procedure:
Each student will be assigned a topic by lot (random drawing from a container). Each student in the class will have a different topic to research, which will be one of the following topics:

∙ Henna ∙ Chili peppers ∙ Chewing Gum ∙ Insect Repellent
∙ Honey ∙ Food Coloring ∙ Food Preservatives ∙ Self Tanners
∙ Citronella Oil ∙ Kava ∙ Artificial Sweeteners · Pectin
∙ Catnip ∙ Kitty Litter ∙ JELL-O® · Chitin
∙ Sunscreens ∙ Licorice · Tattoo Ink · Cholesterol
∙ Marshmallows · Sports Drinks · Margarine
∙ Ice Cream · Leather · MSG Flavor Enhancer
∙ Fluoride ∙ Aspirin ∙ Chocolate
∙ Hair Coloring ∙ Cheese Whiz ∙ Agar
∙ Lipstick · Amber · Cinnamon

This is an independent, at-home research project.

Each individual student will present their research information to the class by presenting an 11” by 17” Shutter Fold (foldable) display of their work, which is constructed according to the attached directions and as demonstrated by the teacher. Pictures of sample displays are on this web site: http://www.cavalierscience.blogspot.com/
The display is to include the following:
­­­­­­ 1. a history of the use and/or invention of the material.
2. diagrams/drawings of the chemical structures, or chemical formula of all the ingredients that make up the
material.
3. the health hazards and health benefits of the material.
4. a biography of the inventors of the material, or a description of a company that manufactures the
material.
5. a copy of a patent from http://patft1.uspto.gov/netahtml/PTO/search-bool.html or
http://www.google.com/patents where the name of the material, or the important chemical ingredient in
the material has been put in as a search term.
6. a completed information sheet about the patent.
7. pictures of the material, or actual samples of the material.
8. The student’s research information should include a bibliography (MLA format), with a minimum of two
references. This is a formal presentation. The writing and project should reflect a student’s best effort.

During the presentations, the audience will take notes about each of the materials.
Everyone will be responsible for knowing the important facts about each material and will graded on their proper
participation as an audience.

The finished project is due on Tuesday, December 15, 2009. The Middletown Cavalier Chemical Science
Meeting will commence on December 15 and run through December 16 to allow for all students to have
an opportunity to present and gather the important information about each topic. Late projects will not
be accepted. Students must be prepared to present on December 15. Projects are a product grade for the
marking period and this project will be evaluated as follows:
∙ Visual Aid/Foldable presentation 20 points
∙ Important information included 18 points
∙ Well organized 06 points
∙ Pictures of Material & Chemical Structure 06 points
∙ Copy of Patent with Completed Information Sheet 20 points
∙ Bibliography – must have two sources 12 points
∙ Audience Notes 18 points

You can access the grading rubrics that I created at these links:
Making a Foldable Display - Chemistry of Materials Project
Oral Presentation Rubric: Chemistry of Materials Project Oral Presentation

Here is a previous list of topics that I used, when the curriculum had more emphasis on chemistry:
∙ Henna ∙ Chili peppers ∙ Chewing Gum

∙ Honey ∙ Polyurethane foam ∙ Food Coloring ∙ Food Preservatives
∙ Citronella Oil ∙ Kava ∙ Artificial Sweeteners ∙ MSG Flavor Enhancer ∙ Licorice
∙ Melamine Dishes ∙ Catnip ∙ Kitty Litter ∙ JELL-O® ∙ Insect Repellent
∙ Crayons ∙ Golf Balls ∙ Sticky Notes ∙ Super Glue ∙ Sunscreens
∙ Marshmallows ∙ Gasoline ∙ Teflon ∙ Teeth Whiteners ∙ Motor Oil
∙ Ice Cream ∙ Glass ∙ Duct Tape ∙ Shower Cleaners ∙ Fireworks
∙ Fluoride ∙ Aspirin ∙ Chocolate ∙ Silly Putty ∙ Self Tanners
∙ Hair Coloring ∙ Cheese Whiz ∙ Asphalt ∙ Baseballs ∙ Mylar
∙ Lipstick ∙ Light (glow) sticks ∙ Cement ∙ Tyvek ∙ Kevlar

Here is an example of an assessment that was used with the project:

What am I? Coordinated Science II – TEST – Chemistry of Materials


Date __________________Period ________________Name ______________________________

Directions: Match the descriptions in column A (page 1) with the letter(s) of each material listed in column B (page 2), and write the letters on the blank space next to each number in column A. For a perfect score, correctly match 15. If more than 15 materials are identified correctly, 0.5 points will be awarded for each correct match that exceeds the perfect score of 15 matches.

COLUMN A

01. ____ I am polymer that comes from tree sap.
02. ____ We are saccharine, aspartame, and sucralose.
03. ____ I am in a class of chemicals called terpenes. I
come from the leaves of a plant and am an
insect repellent.
04. ____ I am a long, long, long molecule of
polyunsaturated fat.
05. ____ I am nepetalactone and can be extracted from a
mint family plant.
06. ____ I am a essential oil that comes of the bark of an
evergreen tree. There are 3 n’s in my name. I
am used in flavoring and perfume.
07. ____ I am a long molecular chain of galacturonic
acid. I am the “jel” in jelly.
08. ____ I am added to drinking water to protect teeth.
09. ____ I am pigment, wax, and oil.
10. ____ I am one of the most complex chemical
mixtures that people dare to eat, and I have
theobromine.
11. ____ I am a drink made from plant roots.
12. ____ I am used in desserts, marshmallows, and
candy. I do not have the amino acid tryptophan.
13. ____ We bond to your skin. We are
dihydroxyacetone.
14. ____ I am acetylsalicylic acid.
15. ____ I am monosodium glutamate.
16. ____ We contain the protein collagen, a sugar, and
air.
17. ____ I am the result of a reaction between hydrogen
peroxide, ammonia, and p phenylenediamine.
18. ____ We absorb uva and uvb radiation with an
aromatic chemical.
19. ____ I am glycyrrhizic acid and taste very sweet.
20. ____ 7 of us are certified by the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) as dyes.
21. ____ I have a protein called casein that is treated
with an enzyme to produce curd.
22. ____ We contain a capsaicin, which causes a burning
sensation in contact with mucus membranes.
Capsaicin resulted from natural selection in
response to herbivores.
23. ____ I am a special kind of clay called sodium
Bentonite, or Fuller’s earth.
24. ____ We contain N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET).
25. ____ I am dye from the leaves of Lawsonia inermis.
26. ____ I am fructose and taste very sweet.
27. ____ I am a source of Calcium and Lactose.
28. ____ I form the tough exoskeleton of an insect, and I
am made of repeating molecules of
N-acetylglucosamine, which is a
polysaccharide.
29. ____ Human steroids and Vitamin D are made from
me. I am made in the liver.
30. ____ We are very stable and long lasting. Different
colors are made from magnetite, carbon, iron
oxides, monoazo pigments, and copper.
31. ____ I am made from collagen that has been treated
with tannin from bark.
32. ____ I am a fossil of tree resins (terpenes).
33. ____ We are a flavored solution of sugar, salt, and
sodium citrate.
34. ____ One of our chemicals kills microorganisms and
has the molecular structure: NaCl
35. ____ I am a polymer of galactose that is obtained
from seaweed. Microorganisms grow on me.
I am also used to thicken jelly and ice
cream.

COLUMN B
A. Hair Coloring
B. Sports Drinks
C. Marshmallows
D. Henna
E. Self-Tanning Products
F. Catnip
G. Leather
H. Lipstick
I. Food Preservatives
J. Citronella Oil
K. Cheese Whiz
L. Artificial Sweeteners
M. Margarine
N. Agar
O. Cinnamon
P. Pectin
Q. Chitin
R. Cholesterol
S. Ice Cream
T. Tattoo Inks
U. Amber
V. Sunscreens
W. Jell-O
X. Chocolate Candy
Y. Licorice
Z. Honey
AA. Aspirin
BB. Chili Peppers
CC. Chewing Gum
DD. Kitty Litter
EE. Kava
FF. Insect Repellent
GG. Fluoride
HH. Food Coloring
II. MSG Flavor Enhancer

Looking for topics that could be used with a similar project on inventions?  Visit this web site:
http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/gadgets/reviews/101-gadgets-that-changed-the-world#fbIndex101
Here is an interesting book:  http://www.powells.com/book/joy-of-chemistry-the-amazing-science-of-familiar-things-9781591027713/2-0
Here is a very helpful website with interesting visual presentations about the chemistry of everyday materials:
http://www.compoundchem.com/

If you find links on my blog that do not work, please let me know by submitting a comment.  I would like to keep my blog up-to-date, correct and relevant.

Thursday, October 29, 2009

Internet Search Engines for Science and Research

The following are useful search engines. I found that quotation marks can be used around complex combined names in Highwire, i.e., "elderberry flavonoids," although the directions don't mention that trick.

http://highwire.stanford.edu/lists/freeart.dtl

The AAAS link for searching journals is:
http://www.sciencemag.org/searchall/#O


http://www.plosone.org/home.action

http://www.sciencedirect.com/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/


Here is a free science newsletter that is searchable by subject:
http://www.sciencedaily.com/

Friday, September 25, 2009

Dog Evolution - Case Study

Dear Case Study Teachers:

Our latest case study is “Not Necessarily on Purpose: Domestication and Speciation in the Canidae Family” by Thomas Horvath, Department of Biology, SUNY College at Oneonta.

In this clicker case, students learn about natural selection concepts and interpret phylogenies as they apply to the Canidae family. The case is based on the idea that the domestication of the dog was not likely an intentional event in human history. Rather, the dog as we know it was likely a result of natural selection events. Then, later intentional selective breeding events formed the many different breeds of dog. Most students are familiar with dogs and may be more open to the ideas of evolution and speciation when applied to this animal rather than to humans.

Case: http://www.sciencecases.org/dog_evolution/prelude.asp
Teaching Notes: http://www.sciencecases.org/dog_evolution/notes.asp
Case Collection: http://ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/projects/cases/ubcase.htm

Dogs: Their Fossil Relatives and Evolutionary History

http://news.yahoo.com/video/us-15749625/in-the-doghouse-guilty-dog-on-gma-24642455

More interesting information about wolves, dogs, and evolution:
http://www.latimes.com/news/science/la-sci-how-dogs-evolved-20130124,0,1620029.story

http://news.sciencemag.org/brain-behavior/2013/12/scienceshot-wolfs-sharp-eye-may-have-aided-dog-domestication

Saturday, September 19, 2009

Evolution and Natural Selection Concept Map Worksheet

Change Through Time – Evolution by means of Natural Selection – Concept Map

This concept map can be used in at least three ways. First, you can use the map to preview what you will be reading in your unit of study; you can use it to look up information before you read. Or, you can use this concept map after you have read about the topic so that you can review the chapters that you have read. Third, you can use it as a study guide for a test.

For each topic that is circled, you should write down short descriptive phrases or words that are important facts about the topic. For example, on one of the lines attached to the Organizing and Classifying Life’s Diversity circle, you could write the words: binomial nomenclature (which refers to Linnaeus’s naming system that is still used today). By making short notes that are attached to each topic, you are “chunking” down the information and organizing it in a way that will make it easier to remember. Adding color to your concept map may also help you remember the information.



Saturday, August 29, 2009

Dog and Cat Genetics

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/08/090827141336.htm">Why Obama's Dog Has Curly Hair

ScienceDaily (2009-08-28) -- Researchers used data from Portuguese water dogs -- the breed of President Barack Obama's dog Bo -- to help find a gene that gives some dogs curly hair and others long, wavy hair. Variations in only three genes account for the seven major types of coat seen in purebred dogs. ... > http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/08/090827141336.htm">read full article

Scientists have studied the cat genome and have come to conclusions about how wild cats became domesticated.
http://news.sciencemag.org/biology/2014/11/genes-turned-wildcats-kitty-cats

Wednesday, April 15, 2009

Unit Outline - Mastery Review - Transporting Chemicals Safely

I found this review that I had put together for Chapter 3 in Kendall/Hunt, Prime Science, Level 1. This might be an interesting way to talk about safety, in addition to going over laboratory safety rules. It's a different way of integrating basic chemistry knowledge with practical everyday application of chemistry to people's lives. All students have seen tanker trucks on the highways.

Mastery Review-Transporting Chemicals

1. What are chemicals?

Made up of matter
Atoms and Elements
Compounds

2. What is the importance of the chemical industry?

Important to manufacturing because it converts raw materials into chemicals that are used to make the products we buy.
Chemicals are made in large amounts (bulk chemicals).
Converts raw materials into products that are used directly, such as fuel.

3. How do you handle chemicals safely?

You need to be able to identify the chemical being transported and need access to information about the chemical.
Proper Labeling
Chemicals need to be properly packaged.
Chemicals need to be transported safely.
Teams of people need to be properly trained to dispose of hazardous materials.

4. What kind of information is on the chemical warning signs?

Hazard Classification (what kind of danger may arise)
Substance name and number code.

5. How to you identify chemical hazards?

Test for:
Flammability
Corrosion of metals
Is the chemical an acid or base?
What substances does the chemical react with?

6. How do you handle chemicals safely?

Know where to find out information about the chemicals.
Use the proper procedures for hazardous chemicals.
Know how to administer first aid.

7. What is the international code for chemistry?

A shorthand system for representing chemicals.
Elements are represented by international symbols.

8. How do we describe chemical reactions?

Word equations
Symbol equations
Balanced equations

9. Who are some important chemists?

John Dalton – said all matter is made of atoms
John Newlands – in 1863, he made the first periodic table by arranging the elements in the order of increasing masses of their atoms.
Dimitri Mendeleev – arranged the elements in the order of increasing masses and also according to similar properties (he put them in columns).

10. How is the modern periodic table used?

One can find the atomic number. (number of protons)
The vertical columns have chemicals with similar properties. (Groups)
One can find out the symbol and name of each element.
One can read a key to find out if an element is a metal, nonmetal, or gas
One can find out the atomic weight, which along with the atomic number, can indicate number of electrons, protons, and neutrons in an atom.

Friday, April 10, 2009

Genetics Project - Three Selected Case Studies in Genetics

The first case study is modified from the case study, The Death of Baby Pierre. I changed the name of the child to make it less likely for my students to search and copy the answers to the questions, from the answers online. So, if my students have decided to look at my blog, they have found the source of Case Study #1, and they can check their answers. For the Hardy-Weinberg equation, I re-wrote that section of the case study, as a guided approach to the answers, because my students have had minimal exposure to the application of quadratic equations. Some of my students still find the equation difficult to understand, but having a question that guides them through the equation, as least makes them somewhat aware that there is a way to apply genetic principles to populations, as well as individuals.
Herreid, Clyde Freeman, "The Death of Baby Pierre," National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 18 June 2008. University at Buffalo. <http://ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/projects/cases/pierre.htm>.
Case Study #1 is about the genetic inheritance of tyrosinemia. Here is a video about a victim of this disorder. The first 5 minutes is informative and I can show that part to my students. The ending includes the family drama of the disorder.
<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sT2erjfwE0s>

Case Study #1
CASE STUDIES IN GENETICS
A DEMONSTRATION OF ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE
Project Description
INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY
CASE 1 – Recessive Inheritance


Student Name ________________________ Period _____
Due Date:

The genetics project consists of three directed case studies. For these case studies, you will complete an introductory activity, which is included with this packet. You will receive a “mark of completion” in the teacher’s grade book for having completed the introductory activity, and then you will receive the information that is required for analyzing the cases: The Death of Baby Jeanette, Huntington’s Disease – A Family History, and Hemophilia: The Royal Disease. For these cases, you will be drawing, organizing, and analyzing pedigrees, demonstrating your knowledge of Mendelian genetics, and answering structured questions that are designed to show, in your answers, your understanding of basic genetic principles. This also includes your knowledge of the DNA molecule and its role in inheritance. You will also be playing the role of decision maker as you analyze and state your findings about the cases. So, here we begin:
Case Study #2
This case study was adapted from the case study on this web site:
Martin, Carolyn N, "Its Those Annoying CAG Repeats, A Huntington's Disease Pedigree Using Direct Genetic Testing," Access Excellence at the National Health Museum - Activities Exchange. <http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEC/AEF/1995/martin_testing.php>
A short documentary video about Huntington's Disease can be found here:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=65xf1olEpQM
NBC News video (May 10, 2010): Hacking the Gene Code of Huntington's Disease
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3032619/#37073339
CASE STUDIES IN GENETICS
A DEMONSTRATION OF ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE
Project Description
INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY
Case Study #2 – Inheritance of Dominant Alleles


Student Name ________________________ Period _____
Due Date:

The genetics project consists of three directed case studies. For these case studies, you will complete an introductory activity, which is included with this packet. You will receive a “mark of completion” in the teacher’s grade book for having completed the introductory activities, and then you will receive the information that is required for analyzing the cases: The Death of Baby Jeanette, Huntington’s Disease – A Family History, and Hemophilia: The Royal Disease. For these cases, you will be drawing, organizing, and analyzing pedigrees, demonstrating your knowledge of Mendelian genetics, and answering structured questions that are designed to show, in your answers, your understanding of basic genetic principles. This also includes your knowledge of the DNA molecule and its role in inheritance. You will also be playing the role of decision maker as you analyze and state your findings about the cases. You have completed Case #1, which was an exploration of the inheritance of recessive alleles. So, here we are ready to tackle Case #2:
The case study, which is about the inheritance of dominant alleles, can be found on this web site: http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEC/AEF/1995/martin_testing.php
Here is another case study activity that is on the same topic, Huntington's Disease:
Case Study #3
Case study #3 demonstrates the pattern of sex-linked inheritance. The case study can be found at this web site:
Aronova-Tiuntseva, Yelena and Clyde Freeman Herreid, "Hemophilia: The Royal Disease,"
National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 18 June 2008. University at Buffalo.
<http://www.sciencecases.org/hemo/hemo.asp>

CASE STUDIES IN GENETICS
A DEMONSTRATION OF ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE
Project Description
INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY
Case Study #3 – Sex-Linked Inheritance


Student Name ________________________ Period _____
Due Date:

The genetics project consists of three directed case studies. For these case studies, you will complete an introductory activity, which is included with this packet. You will receive a “mark of completion” in the teacher’s grade book for having completed the introductory activities, and then you will receive the information that is required for analyzing the cases: The Death of Baby Jeanette, Huntington’s Disease – A Family History, and Hemophilia: The Royal Disease. For these cases, you will be drawing, organizing, and analyzing pedigrees, demonstrating your knowledge of Mendelian genetics, and answering structured questions that are designed to show, in your answers, your understanding of basic genetic principles. This also includes your knowledge of the DNA molecule and its role in inheritance. You will also be playing the role of decision maker as you analyze and state your findings about the cases. You have completed Case #1, which was an exploration of the inheritance of recessive alleles. You tackled Case #2, which was an exploration of the inheritance of dominant alleles. Now, for the challenge of Case #3:

From an episode of Mysteries at the Museum, on the Travel Channel, here is a video clip about Anastasia, one of the royal descendants, and how DNA analysis was used for identification:
http://www.travelchannel.com/video/the-real-anastasia

Tuesday, April 07, 2009

Phases of Mitosis - Mastery Review Graphic Organizer

This is a review graphic organizer that I made as a companion to Sneakerdog's Phases of Mitosis Worksheet (http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2009/04/phases-of-mitosis-activity-worksheet.html). Students use the Phases of Mitosis Worksheet to cut out the phases, sequence them correctly, and make a poster. The following graphic organizer can be used for students to summarize what they have learned about mitosis.


Here is a summary video by the Amoeba Sisters:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f-ldPgEfAHI  They also have a website with teaching materials http://www.amoebasisters.com/ a twitter following @amoebasisters and a facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/AmoebaSisters

If you see any links on my blog that do not work, please let me know by submitting a comment.  I would like to keep my blog up-to-date and relevant.

Sunday, April 05, 2009

Cell Structures and Functions Foldable


For those students who are homebound, here are pictures (see below) that show how the cell structure and function foldable was put together. There are four cell structures that are glued onto each edge (16 in all), and the description of the function of each cell structure is glued underneath the flap. This way, students can use this booklet as a study guide. We will also use this booklet for subsequent activities. Other ideas for graphic organizers can be found in:

Zike, Dinah. 2001. Dinah Zike's Big Book of Science for Middle School and High School. Dinah Might Adventure, LP, San Antonio, Texas. web site: http://www.dinah.com/





Here is a web site with lesson resources (including a slide presentation) for Comparing the Cell to a Factory - The Cell as System:  http://sciencenetlinks.com/lessons/cells-2-the-cell-as-a-system/

My students have designed Posters that illustrate cell analogies, using the 9 cell structures on the Comparing the Cell to a Factory Worksheet.  Here are some of the analogies that they have used:  A cell is like a . . . .
House
Human Body
Prison
Computer
Nascar Race
Town
Walmart
Baseball Team
Marching Band
Pick-Up Truck
Bee Hive
Santa's Workshop
Train Station
Boat (Ship)
Basketball Stadium
Mall
Football Team
School
Friendly's Restaurant


If you find any links on my blog that do not work, please let me know by leaving a comment.  I am trying to make sure that my blog is up-to-date and relevant.

Thursday, April 02, 2009

Phases of Mitosis Activity Worksheet

This activity is a worksheet where students cut out the phases of mitosis, sequence them correctly, and then create a poster that illustrates mitosis. I designed this worksheet as a companion teaching aid to this textbook:
McGraw-Hill, Glencoe, Biology: The Dynamics of Life. 2002 and also this website:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/miracle/divide.html
I was also designing an activity that was a little bit different, so that when students learn about mitosis in subsequent years, students would not end up repeating an activity that they had already done. The worksheet, a teacher's guide, and a completed sample are below:
I've got my mind on mitosis and mitosis on my mind.


Students seem to enjoy this activity. I have students arrange their cells in sequence and check their cells, before students glue the illustrations on a colored piece of 11 x 17 paper. This also allows for a "talk through" of the phases. I also check to make sure students have labeled the structures listed on the worksheet. Make extra copies because there are those who make mistakes, or lose the top part that has the directions. This activity works well for students who may not have the manual dexterity to draw out the phases. There is also a graphic organizer that can be used with this activity: http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2009/04/phases-of-mitosis-mastery-review.html




Here is a link to a Smartboard version of Sneakerdog's Phases of Mitosis Worksheet:
http://exchange.smarttech.com/details.html?id=6800407b-77a1-4faf-a5e8-699dd133926c
Here is a link to some pictures that show the phases of mitosis by using donuts! http://www.kevinvanaelst.com/photo10.html

Here is a link to a worksheet that assists in comparing mitosis and meiosis:
http://www.cstephenmurray.com/dnewsom/AcrobatFiles/A&P/mitosismeiosisworksheet.pdf
The worksheet is from the following website, which is authored by Denece Newsom:
http://www.cstephenmurray.com/dnewsom/index.htm
The following link has videos that show real cells dividing:
http://iknow.net/cell_div_education.html
The Amoeba Sisters GIFs are very helpful, humorous, and fun:
https://amoebasistersgifs.blogspot.com/2015/10/mitosis-vs-meiosis.html

I also use this biology coloring book in my teaching about cells:
http://www.powells.com/book/biology-coloring-book-9780064603072/7-2

If you find out that any of the links on my blog do not work, please let me know by leaving a comment.  I would like to keep my blog up-to-date and relevant.


Wednesday, March 25, 2009

What is the Chemical Composition (Ingredients) of Ivory Soap?

Based on the analysis given in U.S. Patent No. 3,933,780 , the composition of Ivory Soap was determined to be 12.8% Lauric Acid, 7.5% Myristic Acid, 0.6% Myristoleic Acid, 21.8% Palmitic Acid, 3.7% Palmitoleic Acid, 13.6 % Stearic Acid, 31.6% Oleic Acid, 3.1% Linoleic Acid, and 5.2% Other (includes C6-C10). All these acids are as their sodium salts. The numbers are probably plus or minus 3% and vary with the species of animal rendered for tallow, and the time of year that either the tallow, or coconut oil was obtained. The mixture is optimized for cleaning. The coconut oil (cocoate) has C12-C14 sodium salts that give a good lather, but are not very good for cleaning. The tallowate is not good for lather, but is very good for soil removal. The acids are shown in their cis form. There can be some isomerization to trans, during processing. The ivory soap bar may also contain some glycerin, sodium chloride, and water. Taken as a whole, the average molecular weight of the sodium salts is 281 grams/mole. A wikipedia article discusses fatty acids. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatty_acids . A table of the GLC analysis and chemical stuctures of the fatty acids found in Ivory Soap (reg. trademark) are illustrated below:



Here is an activity for exploring the surface tension properties of water:
Surface Tension (Soap Boat)
http://mypages.iit.edu/~smart/scavjoh1/lesson1.htm

You can buy Ivory Soap here: https://jet.com/product/Ivory-Soap-Bars-Original/cefc7ab7d7cf4a50887785d515073daf

If you find any links on my blog that do not work, please let me know by submitting a comment.  I would like to keep my blog up-to-date and relevant.

Thursday, March 19, 2009

GATTACA Movie and Designer Babies

Reading Questions – GATTACA and Designer Babies
Goldberg, Allen. “Parental vanity corrupts a lifesaving technology.” The News Journal,
[Wilmington, Delaware] 28 Feb. 2009: A11.

http://henrystrongingoldberg.blogspot.com/2009/02/httpwww.html

http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/commentary/la-oe-mgoldberg17-2009feb17,0,4288749.story

1. The movie, GATTACA, is copyrighted 1997. What services are the Fertility Institutes (Los Angeles) offering to patients that are similar to a scene in the movie?

2. From information that is written the news article, answer these questions:
a. What is “in vitro” fertilization?”
b. What is “preimplantation genetic diagnosis?”

3. What is Fanconi anemia?

4. In the author’s opinion, why would creating “designer babies” cause problems for families who are trying to have a baby free of fatal genetic deseases?

5. Most cases of Fanconi anemia are inherited as autosomal recessive traits (scientists are still researching the genetic inheritance of the disease – it’s more complicated than presented in this question). If “A” represents a normal gene and “a” represents a defective gene, show, in the Punnett Square below, how a child can inherit Fanconi anemia.

6. How can Fanconi anemia be treated?

http://henrystrongingoldberg.blogspot.com/ Update: March 5, 2009. The Fertility Institutes have backed away, for now, from offering designer baby services.
http://henrystrongingoldberg.blogspot.com/2009_03_01_DearHenryArchive.html

Wickelgren, Ingrid. “Designer Genes, Will DNA Technology Let Parents Design Their Kids?” Current Science, Weekly Reader Corporation [Riverside, New Jersey] 3 Dec. 2004: pp. 10-11.
ABC News. "Boy or Girl?" Couples Choose Unborn Children's Sex." 25 March 2006. http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/Health/Story?id=1767206&page=1

Here is a link to my posting with the reading questions that go with the movie GATTACA:
http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2009/03/gattaca-movie-and-designer-babies.html

Teach With the Movies Lessons (free)
https://www.facebook.com/teachwithmovies

Another post of interest:
http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2010/07/longevity-genes-found-predict-chances.html

If you find any links in my blog that do not work, please let me know by leaving a comment.  I would like to keep by blog up-to-date and relevant.

Wednesday, March 18, 2009

Watching the Movie - GATTACA - Resources, Questions and Answer Key

Students watched the movie GATTACA (can be rented at a video store) and answered questions on a viewing guide.  There is a similar guide with questions at this web site:
http://mshartatgreenhope.googlepages.com/Week16.doc
This is part of our study of genetics.
The answer key for the viewing guide questions can be found here:





Here is another website that has questions about the movie GATTACA, and lessons about genetic engineering humans:
http://science.uniserve.edu.au/school/movies/gattaca.html

This is another website that has questions about GATTACA:
http://www.teachwithmovies.org/
https://www.facebook.com/teachwithmovies

My students also read an article about designer babies, and I designed a question sheet that goes with the reading: http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2009/03/gattaca-movie-and-designer-babies.html

Another post of interest: http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2010/07/longevity-genes-found-predict-chances.html

If you find any links on my blog that do not work, please let me know by leaving a comment.  I would like to keep my blog up-to-date and relevant.

Friday, March 13, 2009

Human Evolution Multimedia

Students watched a video clip: Did Humans Evolve? The video clip can be found at this web page:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/educators/teachstuds/svideos.html
However, the PBS video has become somewhat outdated.  So now, we watch this video about human evolution:

Great Transitions: The Origin of Humans — HHMI BioInteractive Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yjr0R0jgct4

Students also watched this video clip: Becoming a Fossil. The video can be found at this web page:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/04/3/l_043_01.html

Human evolution was demonstrated by observing this online activity:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/evolution/

This website ( http://www.becominghuman.org/ ) and note taking sheets are for an extra credit activity.



There is a list on hominin species and information about them on this web site:
http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/homs/species.html

Here is an interesting article, Neanderthals Conquered Humans, Why Not Us?
http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2008/09/09/neanderthal-mammoth.html

Another interesting article 05/19/09, 47-million-year-old human link revealed
http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20090519/sc_afp/usgermanynorwayarcheologysciencelead
Here is the original article that appeared in the Public Library of Science:
Complete Primate Skeleton from the Middle Eocene of Messel in Germany: Morphology and Paleobiology
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0005723

This online National Geographic article contains a video clip that tells about Ida, the 47-million-year-old fossil
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/05/090519-missing-link-found.html
The video clip is also available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xLilqm6GxrA

This online article describes the genetics/evolution involved with lactose intolerance and adult milk drinkers: Sixty percent of adults can't digest milk
http://www.usatoday.com/tech/science/2009-08-30-lactose-intolerance_N.htm?imw=Y
The original article about adult milk drinkers can be found online:
http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pcbi.1000491

Here is the National Geographic online article about the oldest fossil skeleton of a human ancestor (as of October 1, 2009):
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/10/091001-oldest-human-skeleton-ardi-missing-link-chimps-ardipithecus-ramidus.html
This is the link for the AAAS video about the analysis of the Ardipithecus ramidus skeleton:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EC9aIth1ah4&feature=related
This web site has a video about the oldest fossil skeleton of a human ancestor:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vyx-ryWHB2s
Here is a song about Ardipithecus ramidus:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S-DCcrLIcL4

DNA suggests Siberian find could be humans' long-lost relative (March 24, 2010)
http://www.nature.com/news/2010/100324/full/464472a.html

Australopithecus sediba: A New Species of Homo-Like Australopith from South Africa (April 9, 2010)
http://www.sciencemag.org/extra/sediba/

9-Year-Old Kid Literally Stumbled on Stunning Fossils of a New Hominid
http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/80beats/2010/04/08/9-year-old-kid-literally-stumbled-on-stunning-fossils-of-a-new-hominid/

Updated information on how Australopithecus sediba walked, moved around, and ate:
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/04/130411142719.htm

Sequencing The Neanderthal Genome
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/328/5979/710
Research raises doubts about whether modern humans and Neanderthals interbred
http://discovermagazine.com/2013/march/14-interbreeding-neanderthals

First Direct Evidence of Chalcolithic Footwear from the Near Eastern Highlands
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0010984

The Evolution of Blue Eyes - Article - Darwin's theory of natural selection evolves

All Non-Africans are Part Neanderthal - Article - Genetic confirmation that our ancestors interbred
http://news.discovery.com/human/genetics-neanderthal-110718.html

Smithsonian Magazine's article on Evo-tourism
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/evotourism/Evotourism.html

A phylogenetic tree of human evolution
http://www.nabt.org/blog/2010/02/18/digging-up-our-family-tree/

The Human Journey: Migration Routes
https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/human-journey/?fb_action_ids=401681596643087&fb_action_types=og.likes&fb_source=other_multiline&action_object_map=%5B446108608764426%5D&action_type_map=%5B%22og.likes%22%5D&action_ref_map=%5B%5D

Male common ancestry and the Y chromosome
http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn23240-the-father-of-all-men-is-340000-years-old.html

Mutation rates help estimate the age of our common ancestry
First migration from Africa less than 95,000 years ago: Ancient hunter-gatherer DNA challenges theory of early out-of-Africa migrations

Khoe-San peoples diverged before 'out-of-Africa' migration of modern humans

"The largest genomic study ever conducted among Khoe and San groups reveals that these groups from southern Africa are descendants of the earliest diversification event in the history of all humans -- some 100,000 years ago, well before the 'out-of-Africa' migration of modern humans."

Neanderthal fossils found in Greek cave suggest ancient humans and Neanderthals shared a common region with each other
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/04/02/neanderthal-fossils-greek-cave-ancient-humans_n_2992294.html?utm_hp_ref=science#slide=581869
More on Neanderthals and Homo species interbreeding with each other
http://evoanth.wordpress.com/2014/10/23/ancient-dna-reveals-how-often-and-when-humans-neanderthals-interbred/

Great ape genetic diversity and population history
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature12228.html

Neanderthals may have taught modern humans to use tools
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/08/08/1302730110.full.pdf+html

A new fossil skull find has the discovers suggesting that perhaps Homo species are variants of one species, Homo erectus
http://www.cnn.com/2013/10/17/world/europe/ancient-skull-human-evolution/index.html
http://johnhawks.net/weblog/fossils/lower/dmanisi/d4500-lordkipanidze-2013.html
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=560hiKxz-eg

Human migration routes
https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/human-journey/

What did Neanderthals eat?
http://evoanth.wordpress.com/2013/10/22/neanderthals-ate-haggis/

Hominin footprints from early Pleistocene deposits at Happisburgh, UK - The oldest known footprints outside of Africa
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0088329

The Oldest Neanderthal DNA Found
http://www.livescience.com/50458-oldest-neanderthal-dna-found.html

Fossil trove adds a new limb to the family tree - Homo naledi
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/09/150910131807.htm

The Google Doodle and Lucy  11/24/2015
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/google/google-doodle/12013826/Who-is-Lucy-the-Australopithecus.html

Why Aren't Apes evolving into Humans - A Science Explanation
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/speaking-of-science/wp/2016/06/27/dear-science-why-arent-apes-evolving-into-humans/?ref=

University of Texas at Austin. "Cracking the coldest case: How Lucy, the most famous human ancestor, died." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 29 August 2016.
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/08/160829140417.htm

The earliest know human ancestor lived 450 million years ago
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/01/170130111008.htm

If you find any links on my blog that do not work, please let me know by leaving a comment.  I would like to keep my blog up-to-date and relevant.

Thursday, March 05, 2009

Why Is Evolution Important Now? Understanding Extinction and Our Environment

Students read an article http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/27503150/ about the possible extinction of the Mexican axolotl, and answered the following questions:

Koop, David. “Scientists try to preserve Mexico’s bizarre axolotl.” The News Journal, [Wilmington, Delaware] 3 Nov. 2008: A5.

Reading Questions

Name _______________________ Period _______
1. What exactly is an axolotl?
2. The International Union for Conservation of Nature put the axolotl on its
annual list of threatened species. Why is the axolotl population declining?
a.
b.
3. Biologist Luis Zambrano says that if the axolotl goes extinct, it would be a great loss to:
a.
b.
4. Describe:
a. What an axolotl looks like.
b. How an axolotl moves around in its environment.
c. What an axolotl eats.
d. How the axolotl got its name.
5. How does the axolotl play a key role in laboratory research?
6. How can the axolotl be saved from extinction?

Here is another recent article about the axolotl and extinction:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/earth/hi/earth_news/newsid_8220000/8220636.stm
Variation and Natural Selection -Variation in Wolves
A wolf bounty? Not in N.C. In a switch, there’s a reward for a human killer of rare red wolves
http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/a-wolf-bounty-not-in-nc-in-a-switch-theres-a-reward-for-a-human-killer-of-rare-red-wolves/2013/11/10/328aef68-47dc-11e3-a196-3544a03c2351_story.html?wpisrc=nl_headlines

A celebration of Darwin Day and Natural Selection
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ry7ND9Ja1-o

News about the Global Food Bank
http://www.usnews.com/news/world/articles/2015/10/19/syrian-seeds-withdrawn-from-arctic-doomsday-vault

For more reasons to understand evolution, the following posts also address the question: Why is Evolution Important Now?

 Why Is Evolution Important Now? Understanding Extinction and Our Environment
http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2009/03/why-is-evolution-important-now.html

Why Is Evolution Important Now? Disease Prevention
http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2009/02/why-is-evolution-important-now-disease.html

Why Is Evolution Important Now? Antibiotic Resistance
http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2009/02/why-is-evolutions-important-now.html

Why Is Evolution Important Now? Understanding Diseases and Food Production
http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2009/02/why-is-evolution-important-now.html

Why Is Evolution Important Now? Understanding Predation
http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2010/07/why-is-evolution-important-now.html

Why Is Evolution Important Now?  Battling the Bedbug Epidemic and Cockroach avoidance of bait - Pesticide Resistance
http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2011/03/why-is-evolution-important-now-battling.html 

Friday, February 27, 2009

Why Is Evolution Important Now? Disease Prevention

On February 27, students read an article, MRSA and The Science Classroom, and answered the questions that go with the article.  The article can be accessed online at:
http://www.nsta.org/publications/news/story.aspx?id=54441
Students also started a hands-on genetics activity where they are creating a karyotype of male and female chromosomes.

MRSA and the Science Classroom Article
Reading Questions


1. Where can “staph” bacteria be found (be detailed and specific)?


2. How are “staph” infections spread?


3. The initials MRSA are shorthand for the name ___________________.


4. Explain how MRSA became resistant to methicillin.


5. How many people died in 2005 because of MRSA infections?


6. Why is MRSA now recognized to be a widespread community health problem?


7. How many student deaths from MRSA occurred in 2007?


8. If MRSA is not identified and treated early, what can happen during the course of the infection?



9. Jim Henson (creator of the Muppets) died of MRSA pneumonia. Name an actor who died from a MRSA infection.


10. Draw the shape of Staphylococcus aureus and tell what classification group of bacteria to which it belongs.

More information about antibiotic resistance can be found on my previous post. 
Update in the news: Delaware woman treated for rare antibiotic-resistance infection:
http://www.delawareonline.com/article/20100415/HEALTH/4150342/1113/Delaware-woman-treated-for-rare-antibiotic-resistant-infection
Posters about MRSA can be found here:
http://www.cdc.gov/mrsa/library/posters.html

For more reasons to understand evolution, the following posts also address the question: Why is Evolution Important Now?

 Why Is Evolution Important Now? Understanding Extinction and Our Environment
http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2009/03/why-is-evolution-important-now.html

Why Is Evolution Important Now? Disease Prevention
http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2009/02/why-is-evolution-important-now-disease.html

Why Is Evolution Important Now? Antibiotic Resistance
http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2009/02/why-is-evolutions-important-now.html

Why Is Evolution Important Now? Understanding Diseases and Food Production
http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2009/02/why-is-evolution-important-now.html

Why Is Evolution Important Now? Understanding Predation
http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2010/07/why-is-evolution-important-now.html

Why Is Evolution Important Now?  Battling the Bedbug Epidemic and Cockroach avoidance of bait - Pesticide Resistance
http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2011/03/why-is-evolution-important-now-battling.html

If you find a link on my blog that does not work, please let my know by leaving a comment.  I would like to keep my blog up-to-date and relevant.

Thursday, February 26, 2009

Why Is Evolution Important Now? Antibiotic Resistance

Students participated in an adapted activity found at:
http://www.newtonsapple.tv/TeacherGuide.php?id=1279
then did the following assignment:

If a bacterium can divide and produce 2 bacteria every 20 minutes, how soon will the two initially surviving resistant germs reach a total of one million organisms? 10 million? 100 million? One billion bacteria? Populations of this size, if pathogenic, are more than adequate to cause great harm.

Students then completed a note-taking study guide that is a companion to the following website: http://www.microbeworld.org/what-is-a-microbe
and other websites listed on the study guide.







Delaware woman treated for rare antibiotic-resistant infection
http://www.delawareonline.com/article/20100415/HEALTH/4150342/1113/Delaware-woman-treated-for-rare-antibiotic-resistant-infection

Students watched Debi's Story about antibiotic resistant tuberculosis, as part of a lesson about why understanding evolution is important now. They also watched a video about diseases.


http://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/nih1/diseases/activities/activity3_debi-story.htm

http://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/nih1/diseases/activities/activity1.htm

Students watched a video titled: Why Is Evolution Important Now? This video is available to watch online at: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/educators/teachstuds/svideos.html

Information and visual diagrams that explain how antibiotic resistance develops:
http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/2013/09/16/drug-resistant-superbugs-kill/

Knowledge of evolution assists in choosing the appropriate drugs for treating bacterial infections:
http://news.sciencemag.org/biology/2013/09/if-chosen-wisely-existing-drugs-fight-resistant-bugs

New York Times 2013 - What is we can't control infections?:
http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2013/12/29/avoiding-a-time-when-bacteria-can-no-longer-be-stopped

Exposure to antibiotics can not only cause resistance to the antibiotics, it can also cause the mutant bacteria to reproduce faster!
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/01/170130110927.htm


For more reasons to understand evolution, the following posts also address the question: Why is Evolution Important Now?

 Why Is Evolution Important Now? Understanding Extinction and Our Environment
http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2009/03/why-is-evolution-important-now.html

Why Is Evolution Important Now? Disease Prevention
http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2009/02/why-is-evolution-important-now-disease.html

Why Is Evolution Important Now? Understanding Diseases and Food Production
http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2009/02/why-is-evolution-important-now.html

Why Is Evolution Important Now? Understanding Predation
http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2010/07/why-is-evolution-important-now.html

Why Is Evolution Important Now?  Battling the Bedbug Epidemic and Cockroach avoidance of bait - Pesticide Resistance
http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2011/03/why-is-evolution-important-now-battling.html


If you find a link on my blog that does not work, please let me know by leaving a comment.  I would like to keep my blog relevant and up-to-date.


Wednesday, February 25, 2009

Why Is Evolution Important Now? Understanding Diseases and Food Production

Students watched a video titled: Why Is Evolution Important Now? This video is available to watch online at: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/educators/teachstuds/svideos.html
Students also watched video clips about Debie's story, which is on a CD-ROM on infectious diseases, which can be obtained from NIH teaching materials.  You can also access the videos online and watch them if you have Quick Time player. 
http://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/nih1/diseases/activities/activity3_debi-story.htm

Students read an article about Bananas to learn about a reason: Why Evolution is Important Now. The article was published in the News Journal, Wilmington, Delaware on December 9, 2005, and is titled: In 10 years, banana you love might be no more.
As an alternative article, students can read the following articles (links below), or any article of a similar nature. Students were to write 30 facts, in complete sentences, on loose leaf and hand in. One of the sentences students were to find, in the News Journal article, was the sentence that contained the word "Darwinian." Students can probably find similar references to evolution in the online articles.
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/18/opinion/18koeppel.html?pagewanted=all
http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20080522/ai_n25445685?tag=content;col1
http://www.fruitguys.com/news/000213.shtml
http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg17723784.800-going-bananas.html
http://www.popsci.com/scitech/article/2008-06/can-fruit-be-saved?single-page-view=true
https://www.wired.com/2017/03/humans-made-banana-perfect-soon-itll-gone/


Did you know that the pecan is the only major nut tree that is native to North America?  Understanding evolution is important in the production of our food crops.
http://www.ilovepecans.org/history.html

Here is a book and a blog that explain how understanding evolution can improve agriculture:
Denison, R. Ford. 2012. Darwinian Agriculture, How Understanding Evolution Can Improve Agriculture. 272 pages. Princeton University Press, New Jersey.  http://press.princeton.edu/titles/9777.html    The book is also available as an e-book.
Here is the Darwinian Agriculture blog: http://blog.lib.umn.edu/denis036/darwinianagriculture/

News about the Global Seed Vault
http://www.usnews.com/news/world/articles/2015/10/19/syrian-seeds-withdrawn-from-arctic-doomsday-vault

For more reasons to understand evolution, the following posts also address the question: Why is Evolution Important Now?

 Why Is Evolution Important Now? Understanding Extinction and Our Environment
http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2009/03/why-is-evolution-important-now.html

Why Is Evolution Important Now? Disease Prevention
http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2009/02/why-is-evolution-important-now-disease.html

Why Is Evolution Important Now? Antibiotic Resistance
http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2009/02/why-is-evolutions-important-now.html

Why Is Evolution Important Now? Understanding Predation
http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2010/07/why-is-evolution-important-now.html

Why Is Evolution Important Now?  Battling the Bedbug Epidemic and Cockroach avoidance of bait - Pesticide Resistance
http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2011/03/why-is-evolution-important-now-battling.html 

Tuesday, February 24, 2009

Dichotomous Keys

Students completed creating dichotomous keys, according to the instructions on the hand-out.
Here is a web site that has an alternative lesson plan.  Print out lesson 5es: Creating and Using A Dichotomous Key. Print out Butterflies to Key. Print out Butterfly Key Worksheet. Print out Butterfly Key Flow Chart. http://oceanica.cofc.edu/LoggerheadLessons/IdentificationHome.htm


An example of a dichotomous key can be found on the following web page:
http://www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/caer/ce/eek/critter/watercritter/key.htm
For another lesson on dichotomous keys, please see my previous post dated 01/20/07:
http://cavalierscience.blogspot.com/2007/01/what-is-dichotomous-key.html
There is another lesson on dichotomous keys on this web site:
http://www.nsta.org/publications/interactive/galapagos/activities/classification.html
Here is another lesson on dichotomous keys:
http://www.lamer.lsu.edu/classroom/halfshell/pdf/dicot2all.pdf
This is a great link for identifying indian arrowheads - it uses a dichotomous key classification system:
http://www.oplin.org/point/index.html
Here is an interesting dichotomous key activity that also incorporates community service.  Free download:
http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Free-Dichotomous-Classification-Key-to-Holiday-Giving-and-Community-Service-402204
This link has a very good picture example, created by students, of a dichotomous key of candy.
http://mrsmaineswiki.wikispaces.com/file/view/Candy_Dichotomous_Key.jpg/32318145/Candy_Dichotomous_Key.jpg

In updating my lessons, I have added to my curriculum and am teaching about dichotomous keys because modern classification includes phylogenetics and cladograms. There is an activity in this textbook:  SEPUP. (2011).Science and Global Issues: Biology. Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California at Berkeley.  Published by Lab-Aids, Inc., Ronkonkoma NY.  The activity is titled The Phylogeny of Vertebrates - Activity 7 pp. 454-458.  It takes students step-by-step through creating phylogenetic tree hypotheses.  If I find any other student activities, I will post them on this blog.
The previous activity in the textbook is an excellent background and introduction to classification.
Note 1
For those who are interested in the Tiktaalik, there is an activity in this textbook:  SEPUP. (2011).Science and Global Issues: Biology. Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California at Berkeley.  Published by Lab-Aids, Inc., Ronkonkoma NY.  The activity is Evidence from the Fossil Record - Activity 6 pp. 446-453.  Students explore transitional fossils in an portion of the activity titledStudying Fossils to Determine the Origin of Tetrapods.  The Tiklaalik is one of the transitional fossils presented in the activity.  The videos listed above enhance interest in this activity.
There is also a 2011 episode of Mysteries at the Museum travel channel show where near the end of the episode, information is presented about the importance of the Tiktaalik fossil and it is explained that the fossil is housed at the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia, PA.http://www.travelchannel.com/shows/mysteries-at-the-museum/travel-guides/outlaw-shoes-and-astrochimp-travel-guide   It looks like the video would be on Disc 2 of Season 2 of the show that can be purchased from Amazon.com.  The episode is titled Outlaw Shoes, Astrochimp, and Message in a Bottle.  I have not purchased the video and am not 100% certain that it is on the CD.  If anyone reading this blog knows how to obtain the Mysteries at the Museum, Tiktaalik video or a video clip, please leave a comment.  

Thursday, February 19, 2009

Whale Evolution Multimedia

To understand the Whale's Tale project, students watched the video clip titled How Do We Know Evolution Happens? that can be found at this link:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/educators/teachstuds/svideos.html
and part of the video Part 1 of Walking with Prehistoric Beasts to see how the Ambulocetus lived.

To understand the characteristics of a modern whale, students watched 3 video clips: Alaskan Whales, the pictures can be found on the following web page: www.toandos.com/whales.html,
Whale Song, which can be found at this web site
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vPPjS4uMwtw
Blue Whale Song
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UStjSuhBBnY
and Dolphins Blowing Bubble Rings, which can be found here:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TMCf7SNUb-Q).

Here is a video that summarizes whale evolution over time:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8cn0kf8mhS4

Here is a whale video that summarizes the evidence for evolution and has some details about whale evolution:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lIEoO5KdPvg#t=12

Star-Trek IV: The Voyage Home
The Crew of the Enterprise goes back in time to save humpback whales
http://www.amazon.com/Star-Trek-IV-Voyage-Home/dp/B002I9Z8BM/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&qid=1453823695&sr=8-2&keywords=Star+Trek+the+voyage+home

http://www.reelz.com/trailer-clips/49179/star-trek-iv-the-voyage-home-clip/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kkbHi2eT5_U


Here are some useful links about Whale Evolution:
http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/lessons/whale.ev.html
http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/lessons/wh.ank.act.pdf
http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/whales/allabout/Evol.shtml
http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/data/2001/11/01/html/ft_20011101.4.html?fs=www3.nationalgeographic.com&fs=plasma.nationalgeographic.com
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/04/0414_050414_egyptwhale.html
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/12/071219-whales-evolved.html
http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2010/08/whale-evolution/mueller-text
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/09/0919_walkingwhale_2.html
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/02/090203-pregnant-whale-fossil_2.html
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evograms_03
http://berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2005/01/24_hippos.shtml
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/phylogenetics_10
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/09/090924185533.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution_of_cetaceans
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Even-toed_ungulate
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippopotamus
http://www.nyit.edu/medicine/research/evolution_of_dolphins_and_whales_homepage/
http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1997-12-07/news/9712070170_1_beluga-paleontologists-hippos
http://www.actionbioscience.org/evolution/gingerich.html
http://www-personal.umich.edu/~gingeric/PDFfiles/PDG413_Whaleevol.pdf
http://www-personal.umich.edu/~gingeric/PDGwhales/Whales.htm
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/03/4/l_034_05.html
http://biologos.org/blog/evidences-for-evolution-part-2b-the-whales-tale
http://suite101.com/a/the-evolution-of-the-hippopotamus-a371242
http://ncse.com/rncse/21/5-6/tale-two-entities-whales-hippos
http://www.locolobo.org/CetaceanEvolution.html
http://www.pandasthumb.org/archives/2008/03/whale-evolution.html
http://www.life.umd.edu/biology/dudashlab/Docs%20for%20Honors%20Class/Final%20presentations/whaleevolutionppt.ppt
http://phys.org/news2806.html
https://danniteboul.wordpress.com/2013/12/03/they-did-it-on-porpoise/
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0007062

Mesonychid ancestor/relative of the whale:
http://www.newanimal.org/meso.htm
http://www.donaldprothero.com/files/47440598.pdf



Early Whales Gave Birth On Land, Fossil Find Reveals
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090204085133.htm
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/02/090203-pregnant-whale-fossil_2.html

"Whale Lice" Genes Offer Clues to Whale Evolution

Jurassic Shrew is Earliest Known Mammal That Used a Placenta (our common ancestor!)
http://www.sciencenewsblog.com/blog/825113

Smithsonian Magazine's article on Evo-tourism
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/evotourism/Evotourism.html

The Origin of Whales and the Power of Independent Evidence by Raymond Sulera
http://ncse.com/rncse/20/5/origin-whales-power-independent-evidence
http://www.talkorigins.org/features/whales/

Whales evolved from a small, deer-like mammal
http://www.theguardian.com/science/2007/dec/20/sciencenews.evolution
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/12/071219-whales-evolved_2.html

Another "Walking Whale" Fossil has been discovered:
http://www.isciencetimes.com/articles/6094/20130920/walking-whale-fossil-ocucaje-peru-40-million-years.htm

Is the Hippopotamus the Closest Living Relative to the Whale?
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/03/090318153803.htm


Deep-diving whales could hold answer for synthetic blood
Study shows how marine mammals pack muscle cells with oxygen-holding protein 
http://news.rice.edu/2015/09/25/deep-diving-whales-could-hold-answer-for-synthetic-blood-2/



There are many other facts about whales that you can discover on your own. Try these web pages:
What is a Modern Whale?
Information on proto-whales
http://www.oceansofkansas.com
Pliosaur (not a whale):
Beaked whale:
General Whale Information:
Oceania Project
Channel Islands Marine Sanctuary
http://channelislands.noaa.gov/focus/alert.html
World Wide Whales (Link Exchange)
Center for Whale Research
http://www.whaleresearch.com
Cetacean Society International (Link Exchange)
http://csiwhalesalive.org/
Whales as marine ecosystem engineers
http://ecowatch.com/2014/07/09/whales-marine-ecosystem-engineers/
Video footage of whales and dolphins feeding
Helicopter ride reveals enormous mass of anchovies, herded by dolphins and whales | GrindTV.com
Humpback Whale
http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/pdfs/recovery/whale_humpback.pdf
https://swfsc.noaa.gov/uploadedFiles/Divisions/PRD/Projects/Research_Cruises/Hawaii_and_Alaska/SPLASH/SPLASH-contract-Report-May08.pdf
http://www.amazon.com/Humpbacks-Unveiling-Mysteries-Jim-Darling/dp/1894694724
http://www.alaskahumpbacks.org/Classification.html
https://seagrant.uaf.edu/map/gap/marine-mammals/publications/witteveenposter.pdf
Video of what it feels like to swim with the majestic whales:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cij3cleb8SU
Whales and Dolphins
http://www.amazon.com/Whales-Dolphins-Question-Smithsonian-Smithsonians/dp/B0064XH63Q
Marine Mammals
http://www.amazon.com/Marine-Mammals-Second-Edition-Evolutionary/dp/0120885522
See the Ancient Whale Skull Recovered from a Virginia Swanp
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zw-Anc-NXP8

The importance of Fossils
http://classroom.synonym.com/importance-fossils-2470.html

The Trends in Whale Evolution and Evidence Whales have Changed Over Time
http://www.talkorigins.org/features/whales/

Video - How Whales Change Climate
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M18HxXve3CM

Whale Gifs
https://www.tenor.co/search/whale-gifs

Whale Video - Whales An Unforgettable Journey - IMAX
     narrated by Patrick Stewart
https://dvd.netflix.com/Movie/Whales-An-Unforgettable-Journey-IMAX/17104335

Just for fun, there are walking whales in the movie, The Croods
http://the-croods.wikia.com/wiki/Ground_Whale





WadiHitanDorudon
Roland Unger [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AWadiHitanDorudon.jpg
The Valley of Whales, Egypt

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